台式腿举世界纪录:英语词汇学习心得(8)

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英语词汇学习心得(8

                                                          

 

              形容词liable、、susceptiblevulnerablesubject

                             aptprone

                                                                                                                                                                    佳中

 

这组形容词都含“易于·····的”,“有·····倾向”的意思。

 

liable  普通用词,指易产生不利的后果,如,危险、风险、伤害等。可接介词to或不定式to do sth.。

 

       1) Continued exposure to stress has been linked to worseded functioning of the immune    system, leaving a person more liable to infection.             (持续承受压力与免疫系统功能下降有关,使人更容易被感染。)2) Words with a similar form and a similar meaning are liable to be confused by the students.   (形式相似和意义相似的词容易被学生混淆。)       3) He is liable to make decisions on the basis of his personal likes and dislikes rather than what is best for the organization.       (他有根据个人好恶而不是根据什么最适合他的组织作决定的倾向。)

 

susceptible   较liable正式,多见用于正式文体英语,接介词to。

 

1) Continued exposure to stress has been linked to worseded functioning of the immune    system, leaving a person more liable / susceptible to infection.   (持续承受压力与免疫系统功能下降有关,使人更容易被感染。)2) Fish, fruits and vegetables are susceptible to decay in the long-distance transport.  (鱼、水果和蔬菜在长途运输很容易腐烂。)       3)Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men.            (与男性相比,在承受压力时,女性特别容易患抑郁症和焦虑症。)

 

vulnerable   侧重指易受到伤害、危险或影响等,接介词to,常用作表语或定语。

 

1) Many countries have felt vulerable to soaring oil prices and to supply disruptions.
(许多国家感到经受不了油价飞涨和供应中断的威胁。)2) As children grow older they usually become less vulnerable to the influence of the people with whom they are immediately in contact.
(随着孩子的成长,他们通常变得不那么容易受到周围与之接触人的影响,)3) Anger and other strong emotions can trigger potentially deadly heart rhythms in certain vulnerable people.   (愤怒和其他强烈的情绪会引发易感人群心律不齐而致命。)       4) Firms that depend on external funds, such as bank loans or equity sales, are particularly vulnerable.
(依靠外部资金的公司比如银行贷款或者股权出售显得尤其的脆弱。)

 

subject  subject 与介词to连用也可表示“易于·····的”意思,但侧重于“容易遭受”某些不幸的事情。subject基本意思是“受支配”、 “受制于”、“从属于”。

 

1) Japan is subject to earthquakes.   (日本很容易遭受地震。)  2) Flights are subject to delay when there is a fog.     (有雾时候航班会延误。)3) In areas subject to strong winds, the rich top-soil began to blow away, leaving a stony waste.    (在易遭受强风地区,肥沃的表层土壤开始吹跑,留下一片不毛之地。

 

apt  常指固有的或习惯性的倾向,常接动词不定式,表示“易于……”、“倾向于……”,一般是人作主语,物作主语多表示自然的倾向性。

 

1) A careless man is apt to make mistakes.   (粗心的人容易犯错误。)2) He is apt to fly in a rage.
    (他极容易发脾气。)       3) When a woman dresss to make herself up, the victin is apt to be time.
(当女人着意打扮自己时,被牺牲的往往是时间。)

 

prone   常指有某种弱点、错误或不良行为的倾向,接动介词to或动词不定式。

 

1) We are prone to think evil of people whom we don’t like.     (对于我们不喜欢的人,我们往往不往他们好的方面想。)       2) Boxers, in particular, are prone to the type of sustained head trauma associated with dementia pugilistica.       (拳击运动员容易发生与痴呆相关的持续性头脑损伤。)